Hire Writer Although the aetiology is non known, there has been grounds that both familial sensitivity and environmental factors play a function in the development of the disease4.
DE forms an important contribution to the total particulate matter in air pollution, and therefore poses a major threat for human health 8. In the past, human exposure to DE has been widely studied, but mostly in relation to pulmonary or cardiovascular diseases 2,4.
In recent years, the possible effects of NPs on the central nervous system CNS have been highlighted, and observed changes in brain activity are hypothesized to be caused by NPs affecting signaling in the CNS 3. NP inhalation and transport through the olfactory pathway bypasses the BBB and minimizes systemic exposure Furthermore, people who have been exposed for a prolonged time to high concentrations of air pollution frequently experience damage to the olfactory mucosa, the olfactory bulb and the prefrontal cortex.
Despite this correlation is the molecular mechanisms behind air pollution-induced development of AD still poorly understood. However, new evidence suggests the role of NPs in activating microglial cells, causing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress Additionally, NPs are also absorbed through the respiratory system and transported to the systemic circulation.
This can lead to respiratory and systemic inflammation, resulting in an increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with microglial activation, but this will be discussed later.
Oxidative damage and plaque forming AD is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder, affecting millions of people worldwide.
Microglia are the immune cells of the brain, and as such are implicated in nearly every neurological disorder. However, microglia are also crucial for maintaining healthy . Neurological Disorders Essay; Neurological Disorders Essay. Words 7 Pages. The human brain is utterly baffling. A small organ weighing merely three pounds as an adult has the ability to control and shape a human’s life. Without it there would be nothing. Microglial and Neurological Disorder Words | 9 Pages. Role of Microglia in Neurological Disorders and Their Potentials as a Therapeutic Target Although microglia are involved in almost all neurodegenerative disorders, the mechanisms for microglial activation and their potential contributions to neuronal degeneration remain a matter of intense debate. Diversity and plasticity of microglial.
Many risk factors have been highlighted over the years, with advanced age and family history as the most proven factors 9. The exact mechanism behind neuronal degeneration is yet to be fully understood, but increasing evidence indicates oxidative stress as important mediator.
Several studies showed AD patients with brain damage as a result of oxidative stress, associated with increased products of protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation.
This is the result of a state of redox imbalance due to an increased production of reactive oxygen species ROS. ROS are a group of oxygen containing molecules with a high reactive potential.
They are products of regular cell processes, such as the generation of ATP in the mitochondria, and maintained by antioxidant enzymes or compounds which remove or repair oxidized molecules When the antioxidant defense mechanism is unable to maintain the increased ROS levels, oxidative damage will occur.
Abstract. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects motor-related neuroanatomic structures. The role of microglia in MSA is unknown. Introduction. Multiple induration (MS) is one of the commonest causes of neurological disablement in immature grownups. It is a chronic, devolving, autoimmune disease that causes a progressive devastation of the medulla sheaths taking to demyelination in the cardinal nervous system (CNS) 1. Neurological Disorders essays Neurological disorders have been diagnosed and treated with some success for many years now. Disorders ranging from Alzheimer's disease to Tourette's Syndrome have been catalogued, identified, and treated. New disorders are diagnosed all the time, however, and.
Accumulation of ROS can damage lipid proteins or nucleic acids in the cell when a toxic threshold is reached 9. The brain is especially vulnerable to oxidative stress, due to its high concentration of lipids, physiological oxygen and high energy use.
In AD patients, oxidative stress eventually leads to reduced motor skills and cognitive abilities One important physiological symptom of AD is the emergence of extracellular compact fibrils, or senile plaques, surrounding neurons Oxidized macromolecules, products of oxidative stress, have been identified in these plaques A proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein APP occurs physiological or pathological non-amyloidogenic and amyloidogenic, respectively.
Formation of the plaques is most likely according to this figure.Parkinson's disease is a debilitating neurological disorder characterized that affects % of the adult population over 55 years of age. For the vast majority of cases, the etiology of this disorder is unknown, although it is generally accepted that there is a genetic susceptibility to any number of .
Neurological Disorders. Neurological disorders, such as headaches, seizure disorders, sleep disorders, depression, and dementia, can present several complications for patients of all ages. Neurological Disorders essays Neurological disorders have been diagnosed and treated with some success for many years now.
Disorders ranging from Alzheimer's disease to Tourette's Syndrome have been catalogued, identified, and treated. New disorders are diagnosed all the time, however, and.
Introduction Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by core symptoms that include persistent deficits in social communication and interaction as well as restricted repetitive patterns of behaviors and .
Microglia are the immune cells of the brain, and as such are implicated in nearly every neurological disorder.
However, microglia are also crucial for maintaining healthy . Abstract. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder that predominantly affects motor-related neuroanatomic structures.
The role of microglia in MSA is unknown.