Supernatural traditions[ edit ] Throughout time, societies have proposed several explanations of abnormal behavior within human beings. Beginning in some hunter-gatherer societies, animists have believed that people demonstrating abnormal behavior are possessed by malevolent spirits. Performed by religious authorities, exorcism is thought of as another way to release evil spirits who cause pathological behavior within the person. In some instances, individuals exhibiting unusual thoughts or behaviors have been exiled from society or worse.
Allport First published in American Journal of Psychology, 50, For fifty years this JOURNAL has served both as a rich repository for research and as a remarkably sensitive record of the psychological temper of the times.
These two services are of great historical value. Since there is no reason to doubt that The American Journal will continue to hold its position of leadership in the future, one wonders what new currents of psychological interest its pages will reflect in the coming half-century. With what problems will psychologists be chiefly concerned?
What discoveries will they make? What types of scientific formulation will they prefer? To predict at least one of these trends accurately requires no clairvoyance. On all sides we see the rising tide of interest in problems of personality. Up to a few years ago the somewhat segregated field of clinical psychology alone was concerned; but now theoretical and experimental psychology are likewise deeply affected.
As never before the traditional portrait of the "generalized human mind" is being tested against the living models from which it is derived. As compared with particular minds it is found to lack locus, self-consciousness, organic character, and reciprocal interpenetration of parts, all of which are essential to personality.
Unless I am greatly mistaken the coming half-century will see many attempts to replace the abstract datum mind-in-general with the concrete datum mind-in-particulareven at the peril of a revolutionary upset in the conception of psychology as science.
Some of the best known definitions of psychology formulated in the past fifty years have Chapter 3 outline clinical psych explicit recognition to the individuality of mind -- that is, to its dependence upon the person. But these definitions have not as yet noticeably affected the abstractive tendency of psychological research -- not even that of their authors.
Wundt, James, and Titchener serve as examples. It is as though some vague sense of propriety guided them in framing their definitions; they knew that mind as a psychological datum exists only in finite and in personal forms.
Yet their historical positions -- the spirit of the times in which they worked -- prevented them from following their own definitions to the end. Had any one of them done so, the psychology of personality would have had early and illustrious sponsorship.
In line with what I regard as a certain development in the psychology of the future I venture to submit a paper dealing, I think, with the one issue that above all others divides the study of mind-in-general from the study of mind-in-particular.
Motivation is the special theme, but the principle involved reaches into every nook and cranny of the evolving science of personality. By its very nature it cannot be merely a descriptive psychology, content to depict the what and the how of human behavior.
The boldness of dynamic psychology in striking for causes stands in marked contrast to the timid, "more scientific," view that seeks nothing else than the establishment of a mathematical function for the relation between some artificially simple stimulus and some equally artificial and simple response.
If the psychology of personality is to be more than a matter of coefficients of correlation it too must be a dynamic psychology, and seek first and foremost a sound and adequate theory of the nature of human dispositions.
The type of dynamic psychology almost universally held, though sufficient from the point of view of the abstract motives of the generalized mind, fails to provide a foundation solid enough to bear the weight of any single full-bodied personality.
The reason is that prevailing dynamic doctrines refer every mature motive of personality to underlying original instincts, wishes, or needs, shared by all men.
Though capable of extension on both the receptive and executive sidesthey are always few in number, common in all men, and established at birth. The enthusiastic collector of bric-a-brac derives his enthusiasm from the parental instinct; so too does the kindly old philanthropist, as well as the mother of a brood.
Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests, which are designed to be "an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior". The term sample of behavior refers to an individual's performance on tasks that have usually been prescribed beforehand. The samples of behavior that make up a paper-and-pencil test, the most common type of test, are a series of items. Shooting The Odds: Dr. Shipko is a psychiatrist in private practice in Pasadena, CA and author of Surviving Panic Disorder and Xanax lausannecongress2018.com from his clinical experience, his blog concerns adverse effects of SSRI antidepressants, particularly withdrawal related effects. Learn notes clinical psych chapter 3 with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of notes clinical psych chapter 3 flashcards on Quizlet.
It does not matter how different these three interests may seem to be, they derive their energy from the same source. The principle is that a very few basic motives suffice for explaining the endless varieties of human interests. The psychoanalyst holds the same over-simplified theory. The number of human interests that he regards as so many canalizations of the one basic sexual instinct is past computation.
The authors of this type of dynamic psychology are concerning themselves only with mind-in-general. They seek a classification of the common and basic motives by which to explain both normal or neurotic behavior of any individual case. This is true even though they may regard their own list as heuristic or even as fictional.
The plan really does not work. Not four wishes, nor eighteen propensities, nor any and all combinations of these, even with their extensions and variations, seem adequate to account for the endless variety of goals sought by an endless variety of mortals.
Paradoxically enough, in many personalities the few simplified needs or instincts alleged to be the common ground for all motivation, turn out to be completely lacking. The second type of dynamic psychology, the one here defended, regards adult motives as infinitely varied, and as self-sustaining, contemporary systems, growing out of antecedent systems, but functionally independent of them.
Just as a child gradually repudiates his dependence on his parents, develops a will of his own, becomes self-active and self-determining, and outlives his parents, so it is with motives. Each motive has a definite point of origin which may possibly lie in instincts, or, more likely, in the organic tensions of infancy.
Chronologically speaking, all adult purposes can be traced back to these seed-forms in infancy, but as the individual matures the tie is broken.Chapter 3 is the first session of treatment, and corresponds to chapter 3 of the workbook.
It includes the material needed, session outline, overview of the program and treatment procedures used, information gathering, breathing retraining, and homework. Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests, which are designed to be "an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior".
The term sample of behavior refers to an individual's performance on tasks that have usually been prescribed beforehand. The samples of behavior that make up a paper-and-pencil test, the most common type of test, are a series of items.
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CHAPTER OUTLINE LEARNING OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION PSYCHOLOGY AND THE LAW The meaning of ‘forensic’ The origins of legal psychology EYEWITNESS MEMORY.
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Shooting The Odds: Dr. Shipko is a psychiatrist in private practice in Pasadena, CA and author of Surviving Panic Disorder and Xanax lausannecongress2018.com from his clinical experience, his blog concerns adverse effects of SSRI antidepressants, particularly withdrawal related effects.
Dr. Wong is the Founding President of the Meaning-Centered Counselling Institute, Inc. (MCCI) and the originator of meaning-centered counselling and therapy (MCCT), an .